Population implications of the use of bedaquiline in people with extensively drug-resistant TB: are fears of resistance justified?

 In a Personal View published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Amber Kunkel, Jennifer Furin and Ted Cohen argue that resistance concerns should not forestall use of bedaquiline in patients with XDR-TB. Their position in favour of increased access to bedaquiline for these patients is based on three arguments. First, the use of drug combinations that include bedaquiline might prevent spread of XDR disease to others in the community. Second, until new combination regimens of novel drugs for XDR-TB become available, patients with XDR disease and their infected contacts will face equivalent outcomes if bedaquiline is either not provided because of policy, or not effective because of resistance. Finally, because resistance to bedaquiline and other antituberculosis drugs is caused by mutations within a single bacterial chromosome, use of bedaquiline in patients with XDR-TB will not substantially increase the risk of bedaquiline resistance in patients with drug-susceptible or multidrug-resistant (non‑XDR) tuberculosis strains.
Read the full Personal View here.